Analysis of Participation in an Online Photo-Sharing Community

Nov, O., Naaman, M., & Ye, C. (2009). Analysis of participation in an online photo-sharing community: A multidimensional perspective. Journal of the american society for information science and technology.

Important to understand what drives users to participate and share information.

Variables
Extrinsic motivations: rewards self development and building reputation
Intrinsic motivations: inherent satisfaction from the activity (enjoyment based and obligation based)
Length of membership

Enjoyment
Commitment to the community
Self-development
Reputation gaining
___ with be higher with more participation in the community

Types
Sharing information goods with other in the community
Joining social structures within the community

Analysis
Power-law distribution: few users participation level was high, but most low.

Increased tenure = increased tag/contacts/groups, but decrease with photosharing
Self-development = increased tag/contacts/groups, but decrease with photosharing
Reputation building = only significant to tag/contact/groups, not photos
Commitment = only positive to photos

New members enjoyed more with increased metainformation sharing
Old members enjoyed more with decreased metainformation sharing

New members share more than old
Old member = decreased information sharing

New member share less with more self-development motivation
Old members do not share less with more self-development motivation

New members increased commitment = decreased contact formation
Old members increased commitment = increased contact formation

Conclusion
Better understanding of what factors moderate user participation in communities at various stages of user’s tenure in the community. This can make better opportunities for design of online communities and services, leading to better sharing of information goods.

People stay for the social aspect of the community and thus continue to participate. But why was photo sharing not increased?

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Exploring Motivations for Contributing

Oreg, S., & Nov, O. (2007). Exploring motivations for contributing to open source initiatives: The roles of contribution context and personal values.

Software contribution requires expertise where as content contribution does not.

Goal
What type of open source context activates certain types of motivation?
Who are the contributors and when/where do motivations to contribute arise?

Hypothesis
Motivation to contribute to open source software is different than motivation to contribute to open source content

Open Source Contribution Motivations
Intrinsic (inherent satisfaction) and extrinsic motivations (rewards greater than costs)

Motivation degrees
High: desire to establish reputation and gain approval
Mid-range: desire for self-development through learning
Low: altruism, desire to help other in the community

Hypothesis
_____ will be higher among open source software contributors than among content ones.
Reputation-building motivation levels
Self-development motivation levels
Altruism motivation levels

There will be a positive correlation between ___ values and the ___ motivation for contributing:
achievement; reputation-building
self-direction; self-development
benevolence; altruistic
universalism; altruistic

10 Motivational Goals (Schartz)
Power, Achievement, Hedonism, Stimulation, Self-direction, Universalism, Benevolence, Tradition, Conformity, Security.

Results
Software context participants higher on reputation-building & self-development.
Content context higher in altruism.

All hypothesis were correct and no controls altered findings.

Reputation building was negatively related to reputation-building
Reputation building was positively related to altruism

Conclusion
Understanding differences in motivation can help software and content projects utilize the open source model.

Open source software might want to highlight aspects of learning and recognitions

Content-based projects may want to highlight aspects of reciprocity and altruism, such as benefit to the community