RAA 5: User-Centered Design and Usability Testing of a Web Site

Corry, M., Frick, T., & Hansen, L. (1997). User-centered design and usability testing of a Web site: An illustrative case study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 45(4), 65-76. doi:10.1007/BF02299683

Purpose
The authors of this article were given several tasks from administrators at Indiana University. They were to determine how useful the current university website was through needs analysis and usability tests, and then develop a new site that would better meet the information needs of users.

Methods
A needs analysis was first conducted. The authors interviewed 35 campus departments to determine most frequently asked questions. These questions were put onto index cards and were used in card sorting by frequency, in which over 30 categories were revealed. These findings were used to create a first paper prototype.

Usability testing was then conducted with 21 people, through usage of paper versions of both the original website and the new prototype. Participants could only view one page at a time and were asked a think aloud while they answered 15-20 questions for each website.

A second phase of usability testing was then conducted with 16 participants, focusing only on the newer website. Changes that were made before testing included renaming links, reducing multipage nodes to a single page, and organizing university departments into a long list of alphabetized links.

Once usability testing using paper prototypes were completed, the authors conducted another usability test with an online version of the newer website, using 11 participants. You can tell that this article is dated because the website was tested on Lynx, Mosaic, and Netscape browsers by all participants.

Lastly, a second testing with the computer prototype was conducted to look at the changes that were made to fix the problems identified in the previous phase.

Main Findings
The first paper prototyping and usability testing revealed that the proposed website was more usable than the existing, when finding most-frequently asked information. In general, participants were often faster and more successful when completing tasks with the new prototype.

Results of the second usability testing helped identify more links that were confusing and/or misleading.

As for the usability testing on the computer prototype, there were several problems identified including too many key presses and scrolling to navigate. These problems often had to do with the browsers they were using.

In the second phase of testing the computer prototype, there were higher success rates than the phase before it due to clearer navigation and terminology, fewer keystrokes required, and more of a breadth-based navigation structure.

Analysis
I thought this article had a lot of commonalities with what our Computer Interaction Design class was doing right now. The authors basically used an iterative process to clarify and reorganize the information architecture of the university’s website. Similarly, our class is taking the information from nanoHUB.org and using card sorting and usability testing to validate our own information architecture. That being said, this was a helpful reading to further understand the process we will be going through in class.

I would also like to mention that this article did well in putting the information we learned about IA into context. For example, using breadth rather than depth for navigation structures, and limiting information to one page because users will often ‘suffice’ and not even bother looking at the next page. Overall this reading was a very good supplement to our current course content, despite being dated. But then again, I guess that shows how some design guidelines tend to be timeless.

RAA 2: The use of communication technology by older adults

I just noticed that my previously scheduled dates for finishing my RAAs are incorrect, since the actual due date for all of them are November 1st, not the end of the semester like I had thought. Therefore, I will have to complete one RAA every week until the 1st starting now.


Elderly On Computer

Melenhorst, A., Rogers, W., & Caylor, E. (2001). The use of communication technologies by older adults: Exploring the benefits from the user’s perspective. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings, 45(3), 221-225. doi:10.1177/154193120104500305

Purpose
The authors’ goal was to investigate the benefits that older adults saw from using communication technologies such as email or telephone.

The article focused on the fact that older adults are selective with their actions – weighing the cost with the benefits before ever committing to something. This means that there is some benefit they see from using the communication methods they use, but what?

Methods
13 focus groups were formed with a total of 48 older adults in independent living. They ranged from 65 to 80 years of age.

These participants were given a questionnaire at home for their demographics and background information. Once in a focus group, they were given booklets that contained scenarios of communication that an older adult could experience in everyday life. Participants then discussed the scenarios in 2.5 hour sessions, giving real examples from their lives and pointing out their motivation for using such communication.

Sessions were recorded on audio tape, then transcribed before being analyzed to discover three things: the medium or method, the communication scenario, and the motivation or consideration for using the method. Motivations were then categorized as a cost or benefit.

Main Findings
The benefit of a communication method is very context-related, but all users recognized the fact that email increased communication frequency. Alternatively, participants felt that email was not intimate or as interactive as a phone. Plus, there was the cost of the effort it would take to learn how to use email.

All participants also highly valued personal visits, where the costs were minimal but were from too much (undesirable) intimacy and the time and effort a visit takes. Regardless, they were found to be irreplaceable for most.

Analysis
This article very much relates to my thesis on elderly and the iPhone and has touched on a reoccurring theory in my research: the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory. While the research focused more on email, I will definitely remember their thinking on context-related perceived benefits. I would also like to remember that, in general, older adults view communication as a positive concept, and that knowledge of the benefits of a specific media likely determines if this audience will use them.

RAA 1: The Inference of Perceived Usability From Beauty

Hassenzahl, M., & Monk, A. (2010). The inference of perceived usability from beauty. Human-Computer Interaction. doi:10.1080/073700242010500139

Purpose
The purpose of the study was to re-examine the relationship between beauty and usability, since a review of papers showed high variation in results. The authors assumed it was due to inconsistent methodologies, so they wanted to take another look at the implication that “what is beautiful is usable”.

Methods
The authors created a questionnaire that had participants rate websites in terms of beauty and goodness. Four studies were constructed. (1) 60 participants received a random list of 10 E-commerce websites and were told to browse each home page briefly before rating them on their “first impressions”. (2) 10 female students rated all 60 websites that were chosen for the study, which took around two hours. (3) 57 students were given only 30 seconds to get an overall feel for 30 different websites before rating them. (4) 430 participants took a questionnaire about 21 different websites.

Main Findings
Six parallel analyses on the data showed a similar conclusion: that the pragmatic and hedonistic qualities of websites are related. The article concludes that their explicit model presents a correlation between the two, allowing for a better understanding of the relationship between beauty and usability.

Analysis
I’ve previously looked into articles about accessibility and aesthetics, however they were not empirical. This article gives some real data about the relationship between usability and aesthetics that relates to my interest in interaction design. Possible concerns would be that websites in study 4 had to be translated from German to English. While content may not noticeably alter the look and feel of a site, I would indeed say that is would affect the usability of it.